Thursday, June 4, 2020

Women Rights in Pakistan Essay - 1925 Words

Women Rights in Pakistan (Essay Sample) Content: Women Rights in PakistanNameProfessorCourseInstitutionDateThesis statementThe rights of Muslim women also constitute women rights. There has been growing concerns about what constitute women rights and who defines them. There has been also a lot of pressure on governments to come up with women rights which are acceptable within the context of Muslim religious believe. Pakistan is one of the countries grappling with roles and responsibilities which make up women rights and how they are affecting the governing of a nation both legally and socially. This is after the country ratified all forms of gender based discrimination through the UN Convention on Elimination of all types of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). This paper therefore looks at where Pakistan has come from, what is happening currently and what the future holds when it comes to discrimination against women. It looks at the gains made and the challenges that the country is bound to face now and in future in its attempt to successfully implement the women rights in Pakistan.IntroductionPakistan has undergone decades of social and political turmoil since the war on Afghanistan began. This was after the September 11 attack on the United States. Most of the social conflicts in Pakistan centre on women rights even after the government sighed an MOU with UN on United Nations Convection on Elimination of Discrimination against women (CEDAW) (Weiss 199, 2003). There were clashing conflicts about the rights and privileges given to women but the conflict escalated with the coming of power of an Islamist Muttahidi Majilis e-Amal (MMA) in 2002. Pakistan is one of modern economies which are battling with questions of modernity and globalization. One of the most grappling social concerns is that of women rights. Prior to Pakistan becoming a signatory to CEDAW, it had sighed earlier a number of ratifications concerning women rights. One of them was the Convention on Political Rights of Wome n in 1953. It is also a signatory to UN convention on rights of children which recognizes women rights as human rights In 1989. Other gender based conventions which the country is a signatory to include; The Cairo Population and Development conference Program of 1994 and the UN International Conference on Population and Development. Before 1977, there was no much debate on the position of women in the society. The government just paid lip service but nothing much was happening though there was discrimination against women, it was not so pronounced. Women would participate in both social and public places though they operated mainly at homes.The gender ideology was that women mainly belonged to cooking and taking care of homes while men controlled everything. Women mainly choose to undertake segregated work so that they could not mingle with men for the fear of harassment and discrimination. In some social settings, women were associated were said to be incompatible with the public. This ended up secluding them from the public life. Women were however, until 1977, used strategically to achieve certain results by those in power. After independence, women were given posts in teaching, banking while others occupied posts as doctors. This helped improve the economy and Pakistan was appealing to the international community. Women had helped the country in both pre and post independence times and they slowly became active in women struggles.Zaià ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s ruleIt was General Zia ul-Haq rule which brought most detrimental laws against women when he came into power in 1979. He began to convert most of the legal system in Pakistan to Islamic law. This saw the enforcement of most detrimental laws against women rights which have had an impact even after he left power. The statue which provide for most of the laws criminalized all forms of adultery and fornication thus affecting the penal code. These laws were against women rights and many protested against their executi on. This is what led to the amendment by the National Assembly. Due to the laws introduced, acts such as consumption of alcohol, extra-marital sex, rape and adultery were all governed by the Islamic law. He led the nation to the belief that all the western countries that are against Islam are enemies of state and the country should not give time to activists who were out to "derail" the country. This led to a country with political and social strife as discrimination against women took centre stage. Zai led the country to the enforcement of very detrimental laws which were against women empowerment turning the country into an Islamic nation.The rule by General Zia ul-Haq that is after he became the leader of Pakistan has seen the height of violence being met to the women. For example, the women lack of fair application of the laws governing the Pakistan society. This is illustrated in the manner in which women had no right to justify their raping misfortunes rather punished for reve aling that they had a sexual intercourse without their consent. Unfair application of the law comes in the fact the men or the male gender was not punished and remained superior to their wrong doings met on their female counterparts. In some incidences the women because of the Islamic laws the Zina offences supported by the government of Zia gave men an opportunity to punish the women and girls and the females had to submit because of the fear inculcated to them by the judicial systems.Denial of justice to the women is another characteristic of the Zia rule whereby after the women were accused of having committed crimes such as adultery they were denied a chance to secure bail. Once the women were found guilty the appeal process had been made difficult for them such that they spent many years under incarceration. This is deny of justice to the female gender because these laws had made it easier for the men to get bails while awaiting case hearing but for the woman it was the contra ry.The women during the Zia rule had no freedom of expression as other females around the world or even closer home in Pakistan compared to the males. This is similar to the book Shame by Salma Rushdie that is used to illustrate the theme of shame in connection that shame results into concealing of the truth among the characters. (Jafar, 2005) The shame is in the character of the males who had not appreciated that they were the offenders to the female beings. Therefore in pursuit of hiding this shame the truth was hidden in denying the women the right to freedom of expression. For instance a woman was convicted or regarded as having committed adultery if account of only four men was presented as evidence to the judicial hearing. This is an example of the way the women had no right to give an account of the raping for instance even in cases where the women were the victims of rape.Women were discriminated upon in the employment opportunities during the reign of Zia. This was mostly e vident within the public sector where the women had infiltrated and actively participated during President Bhutto reign. According to Zia who considered himself as the man to bring back sanity to the Islamic laws and society publicly condemned women participation outside the homesteads. This meaning that the public employment opportunities had only been segregate for the superior men. Once again this can be understood on the grounds that the men felt ashamed of accepting the fact that the Pakistan woman had become actively involved in the society during the pre-colonial and post colonial era. Forming the reason that the ideals and principles of Zia were supported by many men once he had declared on setting Pakistan on pure Islamic practice going back to the same segregation that both genders had fought during the colonial times.During the reign of Zia saw physical violence being met on women on basis of their clothing. The Islamic laws stipulated that women had to completely cover their body including the head. Any violation of this custom the men were given responsibility of disciplining the women on account of indecent dress code. For example a man would slap a lady is she came into a public place without covering her head without a veil.After the reign of ZiaAfter the reign of Zia the woman rights became more visible and were on contrary to the rule of Zia. To start with women had equal political and assembly fr...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Kepler s Laws Of Planetary Motion - 1017 Words

Kepler’s Laws Johannes Kepler formulated the Three Laws of Planetary Motion. The first is the Law of Orbits, stating that all planets move in elliptical orbits with the sun at one focus. The second law is the Law of Areas. This is the idea that a line that connects the planet to the sun sweeps out equal areas in the plane of the planet’s orbit in equal time intervals. Last is the Law of Periods which states that the square of the period of any planet is proportional to the cube of the semi major axis of its orbit. It is simple to just accept the laws and memorize them, but take it a step further. What are the explanations to these laws and how did Kepler come to those conclusions? The results that Kepler published actually began with Tycho Brahe. Brahe was interested in reforming astronomy, and wanted to prove his idea that planets circle the sun which then move around the stationary earth. He made several observations with advanced instruments that still to thi s day have been proven by calculations done with modern computers to be quite accurate. All of Brahe’s observations were very useful and interesting to Kepler who became Brahe’s assistant in 1600. Some propose that Brahe only continued making observations because he was unsure of what to do with them or how to apply them, so it was left up to assistants such as Johannes Kepler to put the information to use (J.V. Field). Kepler had been engaging in finding an orbit of Mars, and Brahe’s observationsShow MoreRelatedKepler s Laws Of Planetary Motion2539 Words   |  11 PagesKepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician and astronomer. Best known for his laws of planetary motion, Kepler was a key figure in the scientific revolution in the 17th century. His laws illustrate the fundamental properties of the orbits of the planets and were also a precursor to the formulation of Newton’s law of gravitation. Biography: Kepler was introduced to astronomy in his early years and developed a passion for it, which would span his entire life. AtRead MoreThe Genius Of Sir Isaac Newton1687 Words   |  7 Pagesthe universe in the 1600’s because of his law of universal gravitation, his laws of motion, and other discoveries and inventions. Isaac Newton s law of universal gravitation and planetary motion shed light on the clockwork of the universe. Newton’s discoveries about gravity all began while he was sitting under an apple tree. one of the apples fell from the tree making him begin to think about what caused the change in acceleration and velocity in the apple. 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A celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere which acts as a dome around the Earth from which you can see the stars and the universe. Although Aristotle’s model was good for its time it could not explain retrograde motion of the planets. Retrograde motion is Ptolemy’s model of theRead MoreThe Roman Catholic Church Responded Treatment1645 Words   |  7 Pagesan Italian astronomer and philosopher, the Medici family was a patron of his work. Galilei viewed the physical universe as a â€Å"Book of Nature...written in mathematical characters.† Galilei also improved the telescope, this allowed him to observe the motion of the planets and the surface of the sun and moon. Galileo came to accept Copernicus’ idea of a heliocentric universe based on observations, Galileo’s discussion of the his ideas regarding helio-centrism. Galileo’s views were challenged by the Church

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

China Essay - 1268 Words

China Even since the dramatic post-1949 changes in China regarding the role of women, China has remained paternalistic in its attitudes and social reality. The land reform, which was intended to create a more balanced economic force in marriage, was the beginning of governmental efforts to pacify women, with no real social effect. Communist China needed to address the woman question. Since women wanted more equality, and equality is doled out from the hands of those in power,capitalism was examined. The economic issues of repressed Chinese women were focused on the Land Act and the Marriage Act of 1950. The Land reform succeeded in eliminating the extended familys material basis and hence, its potential for posing as a†¦show more content†¦Women did succeed in gaining materialisticly. However, culture dictates whether these governmental attempts can be successful and China has proven that they were only panaceas for the real issue. Materialistic approaches could not shadow the issue of the view in Chinese society of the role of women. In the struggle for equality, China did not go to the women to find what they believed to be the most effective answer to the issue. The paternalistic powers gave women what they thought they needed for an equalizer, not understanding the need for self-affirmation and independence. The issue the women rallied under was that men were answering the woman question. Womens organizations were not allowed their voice, which became an ironic and frustrating endorsement to the pathetic state of women in China. The One-Family, One-Child policy launched in 1979 has turned reproduction into an area of direct state intervention. The new regime under Deng made the neo-Malthusian observation that the economic gains from reform were barely sufficient to accommodate a population of one billion, given the natural population growth rate of 1.26 percent, much less provide a base for advanced industrial development. The One-Family, One-Child campaigns have therefore targeted women to limit their childbearing as a patriotic duty. The family planning policy is implemented by local units of the W.F., barefoot doctors and health workers who areShow MoreRelatedThe Between China And China980 Words   |  4 Pagesfairness and impartiality in the justice system, which along with its capitalist economy, further differentiated itself from China. This concept of â€Å"one country, two systems† is an important element of Hong Kong governance, and by extension, its people. This represents a time when Hong Kong is slowly pulling its influence away from China. 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Guanxi concept is not completely alien to the rest of the world, it is apparent in a slightly different, more modest form. Most of people would be aware of bribery (it is an act of giving money or gifts that alters the behavior of the recipient), which would be someway linked to guanxi concept. The main difference is that bribery recognisedRead MoreChina s Rural Crisis : China1403 Words   |  6 Pagesexternal pressures that caused the eventual collapse of Qing society. Foreign imperialism highlighted China’s backwardness to its own citizens and, and also heightened the already existing conflicts within China itself. It directly challenged the cultural nexus of power, which held China together for hundreds of years. This system combined the imperial examination system, standard marketing community, language of lineage, and popular religions to promote the cultural form of governance. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Changing Nature of

Question: Analyse the Changes in Workplace. Answer: Introduction The report is based on the analysis of the changing nature of workplace from the 1990s to the year 2017. The traditional systems and arrangement of the workplace have changed and this has an impact on the role of the managers in the organizations as well the studies related to management. The full-time employees in the organization are being replaced by the part time and contract based employees. The traditional models of business have also changed from the last ten years. The changes in the workplace environment have caused many changes in the recruitment processes of the organizations as well (Underhill 2013). The main objective of this report is to analyse these changes and the impacts on the managers of the organizations. Discussion of the changing nature of work The nature of work in the organizations has changed a lot in the last 10 to 15 years. The work process in todays business environment has become more cognitive in nature. As discussed by Gorm and Shklovski (2016), the process related to work in the organizations is more collaborative in nature and based on the teams. The organizations are therefore more dependent on the social skills of the employees and their competence with the new and changing technologies. The processes of the organizations are more dependent on the time related aspects. The organizations try to adapt with the changing environment by bringing continuous changes in their work process so that they can gain advantage over their competition in the market. As argued by Marginson (2015), the changes that have occurred in the organizations in the recent times are as discussed further. The hierarchical structure of the organizations is reduced so that the problems raised in the organizations can be solved faster as compa red to the previous situations. The structure of the organizations has also changed in the modern business environments and the employees work together as teams to achieve their goals. The employees are managed in different ways and they are expected to be committed towards the goals of the organization rather than just complying with the rules and procedures. The structure and procedures of the organizations are going through continuous changes so that they can adapt to the external environment and the changes related to the technologies. Predictions of changes that can occur in the future The workplace environment is expected to go through much more changes in the near future as well. The external environment of the workplace and the factors related to this including the political, economic, social, legal and environmental aspects are expected to change. The workplace will be mostly affected by the technological changes that will occur in the future. The organizations need to adapt to the technological changes in the external environment and develop their work processes to embed the changes. The team work and social abilities of the employees will also act an important factor in the future organizations. Collaborative work will be necessary for the successful operations of the organizations and the work processes. Analysis of the impacts of these changes on the employees and managers As discussed by Manuti et al. (2015), the changes in the workplace environment have also affected the work process of the employees and the managers of the organization. The managers of the organizations need to work collaboratively with the employees rather than just giving them orders or making rules. The employees are considered to be the stakeholders of the company and they can place their opinion in the decisions made by the company. The managers need to build strong relationships with the employees of the organizations so that they can influence and motivate them to achieve their goals (Unsworth, Dmitrieva and Adriasola 2013). The motivation that is provided to the employees by the managers helps them in achieving their goals and thereby increase the profitability of the organizations. Strains, dilemmas and contradictions regarding the changes The reduction in the hierarchy of the organizations has brought many dilemmas in the organization as the managers now have to work collaboratively with the employees instead of placing orders. On the other hand, the responsibility on the employees have also increased. Hence, this has caused stress in the organization for the employees and the managers as well to adapt to the changes (Tulgan 2017). Ways by which a manager can survive in the changing environment According to Putnam, Myers and Gailliard (2014), the changes in the organizational environment can cause loss in the productivity of the employees or fall in their quality of work as well. The duty of the manager is to help the employees to adapt to the changes that have occurred in the organization. The manager can survive in the changed environment by understanding the changes properly and communicating the changes in the organizations as well. The managers need to rationalize the changes for the employees and make them understand the positive effects of these changes. In this manner the manager can survive in the changed environment along with the employees. Conclusion The report is based on the analysis of the changes that have occurred in the workplace environment in the past few years. The effects of these changes on the managers and the employees of the organizations are also analysed in the report. The changes in the work process of the organization has occurred due to the changes in the external environment. The problems faced by the managers and the employees due to the changes in the environment are analysed in detail. The report is concluded with the learning the changes in the workplace is necessary to keep pace with the external environment of the organization. Reflective analysis The process that I have undertaken to answer the topic is the analysis of the two journal articles based on the given topic and the various aspects of the topic as well. I could have also done the analysis based on any real life example of workplace changes. The key topic that I have selected in the analysis is the effect of the changes in the workplace on the employees and managers if the organization. The information that I have selected for the analysis is enough to explain the topic. References Gorm, N. and Shklovski, I., 2016, May. Sharing steps in the workplace: Changing privacy concerns over time. InProceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems(pp. 4315-4319). ACM. Lyons, S.T., Ng, E.S. and Schweitzer, L., 2014. Changing demographics and the shifting nature of careers: Implications for research and human resource development.Human Resource Development Review,13(2), pp.181-206. Manuti, A., Pastore, S., Scardigno, A.F., Giancaspro, M.L. and Morciano, D., 2015. Formal and informal learning in the workplace: a research review.International Journal of Training and Development,19(1), pp.1-17. Marginson, P., 2015. The changing nature of collective employment relations.Employee Relations,37(6), pp.645-657. Putnam, L.L., Myers, K.K. and Gailliard, B.M., 2014. Examining the tensions in workplace flexibility and exploring options for new directions.Human Relations,67(4), pp.413-440. Tulgan, B., 2017. The Changing Nature of Employment: What Will Be the Successful Organization of the Future?.Employment Relations Today,44(2), pp.5-11. Underhill, E., 2013. The challenge to workplace health and safety and the changing nature of work and the workplace environment.Australian workplace relations, pp.191-208. Unsworth, K.L., Dmitrieva, A. and Adriasola, E., 2013. Changing behaviour: Increasing the effectiveness of workplace interventions in creating pro?environmental behaviour change.Journal of Organizational Behavior,34(2), pp.211-229.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

The emergence of different varieties of English worldwide Essay Example For Students

The emergence of different varieties of English worldwide Essay To cite the examples, consider wet (to water flowers), globe (electric bulb), buk (from book, meaning anything written), savi buk (from know book, meaning educated), environment (neighborhood) and bluff (to give an air of importance). A number of lexical items retain the old meaning but are no longer prevailing in Native English. One example is Dress (move at the end of a row for the sake of creating room for extra people) is the reserved meaning recorded by the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary to form in proper alignment. 3) Replacement: We will write a custom essay on The emergence of different varieties of English worldwide specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Last but not lease, the final type of English colonial activity replacement will be identified in the forthcoming part. As mentioned, replacement is characterized by the phenomenon that a pre-colonial population is replaced by new labor from elsewhere, especially the slaves from West Africa (Leith 1996:181-2). In fact, there were so many pidgins and creoles thanks to the colonial activity. To make the picture clearer, the history of slave trade should be described firstly. Slave trade was originated in the mid sixteenth century when a man called Sir John Hawkins sold the captured slaves to Caribbean. After that, English started to send Africa slaves to south part of America, including Jamaica, in order to provide workforce or labors. The varieties therefore emerged as the consequence of connection amidst British and West African people attributed to colonization of America and Atlantic slave trade. In generality, majority of the English-based Creole were formed by the vocabulary of English-speaking sailors and settlers, together with many loanwords, loan transitions, grammatical patterns and so forth. According to Ligon, shipments of slaves were fetchd from several parts of Africa, who speak severall languages, and by that means, one of them understands not another (Ligon, 1647, p. 46). This statement implies the tactic that policy of the slave trader was to bring people of different language backgrounds together in the ships, to make it difficult to plot rebellion (Crystal, 1988, p. 235). If Crystal is correct, pidgin would be the only available communication among the slaves. As the time goes by, pidgin will develop as Creole and become a thoroughly functioning language. In fact, Jamaican Creole enjoys the highest status among various Creoles in the sense that it has the longest-standing literature and the media and artistic use. The Dictionary of Jamaican English (1967, 1980) was written to help standardize the spelling. It was in turn encouraged a fuller use of Creole by Jamaican writers (McArthur, T 2002). Here the citations of the vocabulary of Jamaican Creole will be listed. First, it has many words from other languages like pikni (small child) from Portuguese and ho senny ho (hows business? ) from Chinese. Moreover, there is reduplication in Jamaican Creole like poto-poto (very slimy or muddy) and fenky-fenky (very puny cowardly, fussy). Furthermore, in 18th century there was the presence of nautical terms in Jamaican speech. To cite the examples, berth (office), store (warehouse) and jacket (waistcoat). Conclusion: To conclude, there are many varieties of English around the world but they are commonly regarded as English since that is how their speakers firstly identify them, due to historical reasons (McAuthur, T 2002). In fact, the most significant factor contributing to these varieties is colonization. Three types of colonization, as mentioned above, generate different linguistic consequence and, at the end of the day, the New Englishes. Following this, scholar like David Graddol tries to estimate the future of English. Yet, the most crucial point is, English undoubtedly experiences the highest status in the world right now. .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a , .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .postImageUrl , .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a , .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a:hover , .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a:visited , .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a:active { border:0!important; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a:active , .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ud15352d8219d392cdeb8bae8d459147a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: How does Emily Bronte present Heathcliff in the first seven chapters? EssayReferences: Edgar W. Schneider (2007) Postcolonial English: varieties around the world, The emergence of American English, New York: Cambridge University Press, 278-289. McArthur, T. (2002) The Oxford Guide to World English, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Leith, D and Jackson, L (2007) Chapter 2 The origins of English in Changing English, London: Routledge, The Open University. Leith, D, Graddol, D and Jackson, L (2007) Chapter 3 Modernity and English as a national language in Changing English, London: Routledge, The Open University. Leith, D, (2007) Chapter 4 English colonial to postcolonial in Changing English, London: Routledge, The Open University. Jenkins, J (2009) World Englishes A resource book for students, London and New York: Routledge, Taylor Francis Group.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Major General Charles Lee in the American Revolution

Major General Charles Lee in the American Revolution Major General Charles Lee (February 6, 1732–October 2, 1782) was a controversial commander who served during the  American Revolution (1775–1783). A British Army veteran, he offered his services to the Continental Congress and was given a commission. Lees prickly demeanor and substantial ego brought him into frequent conflict with  General George Washington. He was relieved of his command during the  Battle of Monmouth Court House and was later dismissed from the Continental Army by Congress. Fast Fact: Major General Charles Lee Rank: Major GeneralService: British Army, Continental ArmyBorn: February 6, 1732 in Cheshire, EnglandDied: October 2, 1782 in Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaNicknames: Ounewaterika  or Boiling Water in MohawkParents: Major General John Lee and Isabella BunburyConflicts: French Indian War (1754-1763), American Revolution (1775-1783)Known For: Battle of the Monongahela, Battle of Carillon, Siege of Boston, Battle of Monmouth Early Life Born February 6, 1732, in Cheshire, England, Lee was the son of Major General John Lee and his wife Isabella Bunbury. Sent to school in Switzerland at an early age, he was taught a variety of languages and received a basic military education. Returning to Britain at age 14, Lee attended the King Edward VI School in Bury St. Edmonds before his father purchased him an ensigns commission in the British Army. Serving in his fathers regiment, the 55th Foot (later 44th Foot), Lee spent time in Ireland before purchasing a lieutenants commission in 1751. With the beginning of the French and Indian War, the regiment was ordered to North America. Arriving in 1755, Lee took part Major General Edward Braddocks disastrous campaign which ended at the Battle of the Monongahela on July 9. French and Indian War Ordered to the Mohawk Valley in New York, Lee became friendly with the local Mohawks and was adopted by the tribe. Given the name Ounewaterika or Boiling Water, he was permitted to marry the daughter of one of the chiefs. In 1756, Lee purchased a promotion to captain and a year later took part in the failed expedition against the French fortress of Louisbourg. Returning to New York, Lees regiment became part of Major General James Abercrombies advance against Fort Carillon in 1758. That July, he was badly wounded during the bloody repulse at the Battle of Carillon. Recovering, Lee took part in Brigadier General John Prideauxs successful 1759 campaign to capture Fort Niagara before joining the British advance on Montreal the following year. Interwar Years With the conquest of Canada complete, Lee was transferred to the 103rd Foot and promoted to major. In this role, he served in Portugal and played a key part in Colonel John Burgoynes triumph at the Battle of Vila Velha on October 5, 1762. The fighting saw Lees men recapture the town and win a lopsided victory that inflicted around 250 killed and captured on the Spanish while only sustaining only 11 casualties. With the end of the war in 1763, Lees regiment was disbanded and he was placed on half-pay. Seeking employment, he traveled to Poland two years later and became an aide-de-camp to King Stanislaus (II) Poniatowski. Made a major general in the Polish service, he later returned to Britain in 1767. Still unable to obtain a position in the British Army, Lee resumed his post in Poland in 1769 and took part in the Russo-Turkish War (1778–1764). While abroad, he lost two fingers in a duel. To America Invalided back to Britain in 1770, Lee continued to petition for a post in the British service. Though promoted to lieutenant colonel, no permanent position was available. Frustrated, Lee decided to return to North America and settled in western Virginia in 1773. There he purchased a large estate near lands owned by his friend Horatio Gates. Quickly impressing key individuals in the colony, such as Richard Henry Lee, he became sympathetic to the Patriot cause. As hostilities with Britain looked increasingly likely, Lee advised that an army should be formed. With the Battles of Lexington and Concord and subsequent beginning of the American Revolution in April 1775, Lee immediately offered his services to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. Joining the American Revolution Based on his prior military exploits, Lee fully expected to be made the commander-in-chief of the new Continental Army. Though Congress was pleased to have an officer with Lees experience join the cause, it was put off by his slovenly appearance, desire to be paid, and frequent use of obscene language. The post instead was given to another Virginian, General George Washington. Lee was commissioned as the Armys second-most senior major general behind Artemis Ward. Despite being listed third in the Armys hierarchy, Lee was effectively second, as the aging Ward had little ambition beyond overseeing the ongoing Siege of Boston. Charleston Immediately resentful of Washington, Lee traveled north to Boston with his commander in July 1775. Taking part in the siege, his gruff personal behavior was tolerated by other officers due to his prior military accomplishments. With the arrival of the new year, Lee was ordered to Connecticut to raise forces for the defense of New York City. Shortly thereafter, Congress appointed him to command the Northern, and later Canadian, Department. Though selected for these posts, Lee never served in them because on March 1, Congress directed him to take over the Southern Department at Charleston, South Carolina. Reaching the city on June 2, Lee was quickly faced with the arrival of a British invasion force led by Major General Henry Clinton and Commodore Peter Parker. As the British prepared to land, Lee worked to fortify the city and support Colonel William Moultries garrison at Fort Sullivan. Doubtful that Moultrie could hold, Lee recommended that he fall back to the city. This was refused and the forts garrison turned back the British at the Battle of Sullivans Island on June 28. In September, Lee received orders to rejoin Washingtons army at New York. As a nod to Lees return, Washington changed the name of Fort Constitution, on the bluffs overlooking the Hudson River, to Fort Lee. Reaching New York, Lee arrived in time for the Battle of White Plains. Issues with Washington In the wake of the American defeat, Washington entrusted Lee with a large portion of the Army and tasked him with first holding Castle Hill and then Peekskill. With the collapse of the American position around New York after the losses of Fort Washington and Fort Lee, Washington began retreating across New Jersey. As the retreat began, he ordered Lee to join him with his troops. As the autumn had progressed, Lees relationship with his superior had continued to degrade and he began sending intensely critical letters regarding Washingtons performance to Congress. Though one of these was accidentally read by Washington, the American commander, more disappointed than angered, did not take action. Capture Moving at a slow pace, Lee brought his men south into New Jersey. On December 12, his column encamped south of Morristown. Rather than remain with his men, Lee and his staff took quarters at Whites Tavern several miles from the American camp. The next morning, Lees guard was surprised by a British patrol led by Lieutenant Colonel William Harcourt and including Banastre Tarleton. After a brief exchange, Lee and his men were captured. Though Washington attempted to exchange several Hessian officers taken at Trenton for Lee, the British refused. Held as a deserter due to his previous British service, Lee wrote and submitted a plan for defeating the Americans to General Sir William Howe. An act of treason, the plan was not made public until 1857. With the American victory at Saratoga, Lees treatment improved and he was finally exchanged for Major General Richard Prescott on May 8, 1778. Battle of Monmouth Still popular with Congress and parts of the Army, Lee rejoined Washington at Valley Forge on May 20, 1778. The following month, British forces under Clinton began evacuating Philadelphia and moving north to New York. Assessing the situation, Washington desired to pursue and attack the British. Lee strenuously objected to this plan as he felt the new alliance with France precluded the need to fight unless victory was certain. Overruling Lee, Washington and the army crossed to New Jersey and closed with the British. On June 28, Washington ordered Lee to take a force of 5,000 men forward to attack the enemys rearguard. At around 8 a.m., Lees column met the British rearguard under Lieutenant General Lord Charles Cornwallis just north of Monmouth Court House. Rather than commence a coordinated attack, Lee committed his troops piecemeal and rapidly lost control of the situation. After a few hours of fighting, the British moved to flank Lees line. Seeing this, Lee ordered a general retreat after offering little resistance. Falling back, he and his men encountered Washington, who was advancing with the rest of the Army. Appalled by the situation, Washington sought out Lee and demanded to know what had happened. After receiving no satisfactory answer, he rebuked Lee in one of the few instances where he swore publicly. Replying with inappropriate language, Lee was immediately relieved of his command. Riding forward, Washington was able to rescue American fortunes during the remainder of the Battle of Monmouth Court House. Later Career and Life Moving to the rear, Lee promptly wrote two highly insubordinate letters to Washington and demanded a court-martial to clear his name. Obliging, Washington had a court-martial convened at New Brunswick, New Jersey on July 1. Proceeding under the guidance of Major General Lord Stirling, the hearings concluded on August 9. Three days later, the board returned and found Lee guilty of disobeying orders in the face of the enemy, misbehavior, and disrespecting the commander-in-chief. In the wake of the verdict, Washington forwarded it to Congress for action. On December 5, Congress voted to sanction Lee by relieving him from command for one year. Forced from the field, Lee began working to overturn the verdict and openly attacked Washington. These actions cost him what little popularity he had remaining. In response to his assault on Washington, Lee was challenged to several duels. In December 1778, Colonel John Laurens, one of Washingtons aides, wounded him in the side during a duel. This injury prevented Lee from following through on a challenge from Major General Anthony Wayne. Returning to Virginia in 1779, he learned that Congress intended to dismiss him from the service. In response, he wrote a scathing letter that resulted in his formal dismissal from the Continental Army on January 10, 1780. Death Lee moved to Philadelphia in the same month as his dismissal, January 1780. He resided in the city until taking ill and dying on October 2, 1782. Though unpopular, his funeral was attended by much of Congress and several foreign dignitaries. Lee was buried at Christ Episcopal Church and Churchyard in Philadelphia.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Leadership and Management Hierarchy of Fire Profession Assignment

Leadership and Management Hierarchy of Fire Profession - Assignment Example Apart from his hard work, Mr. Murdoch has been particularly phenomenal when it comes to the exhibition of great leadership traits and characteristics that can be replicated in any public and private service, including the fire and emergency service. Some of these characteristics and traits have been discussed below. As a global leader whose work field of work has focused on finding news for the public, Mr. Murdoch has been identified to be a very good seeker who leads his outfit to go to every extent to find news as they unfold. It is for this reason that News Corporation has mostly been ranked as one of the best in America (Barnacle, 2006). Writing on leadership traits and characteristics, George (2010) noted that leaders act as the directional heads of their organizations, who take a step for all the others to follow. Consequently, the need to be a seeker who always searches for the most applicable and useful strategies that can be used by the company has been recommended. Leaders who are seekers can indeed be very good pacesetters who can guarantee that they will lead their organizations safely to their goals without facing any challenges. This is because before asking the follower to take any step this leader might have first sought to be convinced of the step being taken. There is no denying the fact that the fire and emergency service could also apply this characteristics and trait of being seekers for the betterment of the organization. Like the News Corporation’s work, the fire and emergency service deals so much with promptness and forecasting. In the world of the media, broadcasting delayed news could be as worthless as not broadcasting it at all. Because of this, media practitioners who have seekers like Mr. Murdoch have always focused on breaking news first. In the same way, delaying with fire, rescue and other emergency support could be regarded as worthless.